Wednesday, March 10, 2010

Revenue Recognition (contd.)

Dear Friends,

In my last post I addressed the conceptual framework on revenue recognition. Only when the revenue is both earned and recognizable (i.e. when the earning process is finished or nearly finished and delivery/exchange has taken place), it gets recognized in the financial statements.

I also referred to several exceptions to the afore-said rule, which have been laid out in various  pronouncements under GAAP. These alternative revenue recognition methods are being discussed underneath concisely.

1. Installment and Cost Recovery Methods – Only in restricted conditions, revenues and gains may be recognized using either of these methods.

• Collection of sales price is not reasonably assured;
• Receivables are collected over an extended period of time;
• No reasonable basis for estimating the degree of collectability.

Computation under Installment Method
Revenue is recognized as cash is collected and not at the point of sale.

• Gross profit is recognized in proportion to collection to receivables based on gross profit percentage and the remainder is deferred until collected (realized Gross profit = GP% * Collections for the accounting period).

• Installment receivables and deferred gross profit account are kept separately because gross profit rate may vary from year to year (selling and administrative expenses are excluded in computing the gross profit rate).

•If installments are receivable beyond one year, it should be recorded at the present value of the payments discounts at the market rate of interest.

Computation under Cost Recovery Method

It is similar to installment sales method except that no profit is recognized until cumulative collection of receivables exceed the cost of sales. In other words, profit is only recognized when all cost is recouped through collection of amount.

Note: This method is used when the uncertainty of collection is very high that even the use of installment sales method is precluded.

2. Revenue Recognition when right of return exists – When the buyer has the right to return the product, revenue should be recognized at the point of sale only if all of the following conditions are met:

• The seller’s price to the buyer is mainly set or established at the date of sale.

• The buyer has paid the seller or the buyer is required to pay the seller and the commitment to pay is not reliant on resale of product.

• As a consequence of pilfering, spoilage or mutilation of product, the buyer’s commitment to seller would be unaffected.

• The amount of future profits can be reasonably estimated.

• The seller does not have any impending requirement for future performance to result in resale of the product by the buyer.

If these conditions are not met , revenue must be recognized when the return privilige has substantially expired or the requirements are met. Also any costs/losses related to the sales must be accrued.

3. Long-term construction contracts – These are accounted for by two methods:

• Completed Contract Method and
• Percentage of Completion Method.

When estimates of costs to complete and extent of progress toward completion of long-term contracts are reasonably dependable, the percentage-of-completion method is preferable. When no dependable estimates can be made the completed-contract method is preferable.

Reporting Profit under percentage of completion

Income is recognized as the work on contract progresses.

• Recognized proportionately during contract as a percentage of completion.
(Actual cost to date/Estimated Total cost) * Total estimated contract income
Income previously recognized
Income to be recognized

• The amount of income recognized in the period is added to construction in progress.

Balance Sheet Amount

• Current Asset – excess of costs incurred and income recognized over billings.
• Current Liability – excess of billings over costs and income recognized.

Advantage of using percentage of completion method is that it renders periodic recognition of income and enhances inter-period comparability.

Under Completed Contract method, contract revenue and profit are recognized at completion of contract. All related costs are deferred until completion and then matched to revenues. Though, this method is based on results, it does not reflect the current performance and inter-period comparability is weighed down.

Under both the methods, losses are recognized in the earliest period estimable. Any profits recognized to date are reversed.

Let’s peep and put side by side both the methods through an example. Please follow the link below to view.

I shall resume with this topic in my next post and discuss recognition of revenue related to software, franchise fee and royalty income.

Farewell n be healthy and wealthy!!


Monday, March 1, 2010

Revenue Recognition

Holi Greetings to everyone!!

On this Festival of Colors "Holi" 

May God gift you all the colors of life,
colors of joy, colors of happiness,
colors of friendship,
colors of love and all other colors you want to paint in your life.

Happy Holi!!

It is a spring festival, celebrated at the end of the winter season on the last full moon day of the lunar month Phalguna (February/March), signifying dawn, light, life and a surge of energy. It begins at night by litting the bonfires a day before, suggesting destruction of evil and a hope for good.
I acquiesce with another delay on my part and admit my dereliction of duty and commitment. However, as Aprajita (undefeatedly) I will continue with my effort.

In this posting, I am going to talk about Revenue Recognition. Revenue is one of the most important indicators of a successful business. Since revenue reporting directly impacts an entity's results of operations and financial position, it is essential to have a thorough knowledge of the underlying concepts and practices.  However, revenue accounting literature has emanated in various diverse pronouncements that at times it is often challenging to relate and identify the appropriate pronouncement. I get down to it by discussing the following two important Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts(SFAC):
  • SFAC 5, Recognition and Measurement in Financial Statements of Business Enterprises giving recognition guidance and
  • SFAC 6, Elements of Financial Statements giving presentation guidance.
The terms REALIZED and REALIZABLE focuses on conversion or convertibility of noncash assets into cash or claims to cash (SFAC 6). They identify revenues or gains or losses on assets sold and unsold, respectively. RECOGNITION is the process of formally recording an item in the financial statements of an entity.

Per SFAC 5, revenues and gains are recognized when they are both realized/realizable and earned. Revenues are considered to have been EARNED when the entity has significantly completed its key activities (purchasing, manufacturing, selling, rendering service, delivering goods, allowing other entities to use enterprise assets etc.) thereby, entitling it to the benefits represented by the revenues.
Since gains generally involve no EARNING process, it is more significant for them being realized or realizable.

It is important to understand the timing of revenue recognition as it can have a significant impact on an entity's results of operations. Consider the following situations where (i) revenue is realized and earned at the same time (ii) revenue is realized before it is earned  and (iii) revenue is earned before it becomes unrealizable:
  • The customer pays for the merchandise at the cash register to retail store owner or when a manufacturer processes COD orders.
  • Payment for magazine subscription or rent in advance.
  • Manufacturer delivers and sells the products on credit.
Several transactions have been guided by other pronouncements on revenue recognition and are considered exception to SFAC 5. To mention a few:
  1. ASC 605-10-25-3, Installment and Cost Recovery Methods of Revenue Recognition (APB 10)
  2. ASC 605-15-25, Revenue Recognition When Right of Return Exists (FAS 48)
  3. ASC 605-35, Long-Term Construction-Type Contracts (ARB 45) 
  4. ASC 605-35, Accounting for Certain Production-Type Contracts (SOP 81-1)
  5. ASC 985-605, Software Revenue Recognition (SOP 97-2)
  6. ASC 952-605, Franchise Fee Income, Royalty (FAS 45)
Keeping in mind the various pronouncements on revenue recognition, generally speaking, following four conditions must be met in order for revenue to be both earned and realizable:

1. Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists.
2. The arrangement fee is fixed or determinable.
3. Delivery or performance has occurred.
4. Collectibility is reasonably assured.

If any of the afore-said conditions is not satisfied in an accounting period, revenue recognition must be deferred until the period in which the final condition is met.

This was a brief introduction to the conceptual framework on revenue recognition. I will dig deeper into this topic in my next post.

Until then......Goodbye, Au revoir and Sayonara.